The Real Pilates Standards of Training are distinguished by our focus on 4 key elements. Your weekly assignments are designed to develop your skill in each of these areas as well as your Anatomy, History and more.


Anatomy CASE 2


Now that you have your overview, we’re going to work through some hypothetical cases you’re likely to come across in your career as a Pilates instructor. You will be given a list of muscles related to the injury and some resources to check out. Feel free to use your own-- there are several apps and websites with basic anatomy information. Remember your general rules from the first four weeks, it’s always better to work from logical rules and make inferences rather than memorize lists. That being said, anything that gives you a visual idea of how the specific muscles fit together, and basic attachment points and actions is a good resource to work with. You are encouraged to do your own research regarding the conditions in the case,  just remember all resources are not created equal. Always consider your source!


Ron Weasley is a 48 year old client with knee pain. He is a committed runner, having completed several marathons in his 30s and early 40s. Though no longer running long distances, he still runs 4-5 times a week. In the last year, he has had a grinding sensation in his left knee. It is painful for him to walk up stairs and to perform squat-type movements, and his knee is painful after he has been seated for long periods of time. He has seen his doctor, who diagnosed him with Patellofemoral Syndrome, and advised him to cut back on his running and do Pilates.

Patellar Tracking Dysfunction Resources

    VIDEO: Brief overview

    WEBSITE: Medscape

Bone/Muscle List


  • Pelvis

  • Femur

  • Patella

  • Tibia

    VIDEO: Pelvis  (review)

    VIDEO: Knee Joint

Anterior Hip Muscles

  • Iliacus

  • Psoas

  • Pectineus

  • Sartorius

  • Tensor Fascia Latae

    VIDEO: Anterior thigh

  • Rectus Femoris

  • Vastus Lateralis

  • Vastus Medialis

  • Vastus Intermedius

    VIDEO: Quadriceps

Medial Thigh Muscles

  • Gracilis

  • Adductor Brevis

  • Adductor Longus

  • Adductor Minimus

  • Adductor Maximus

  • Pectinius (review)

    VIDEO: Medial Thigh

Posterior Hip Muscles

  • Gluteus Maximus

  • Gluteus Medius

  • Gluteus Minimus

  • Tensor Fascia Latae (review)

VIDEO: Posterior hip

  • Piriformis

  • Obdurator Internus

  • Obdurator Externus

  • Quadratus Femoris

  • Superior Gemellus

  • Inferior Gemellus

    VIDEO: Lateral Rotators

  • Biceps Femoris

  • Semitendinosus

  • Semimembranosus

    VIDEO: Posterior Thigh


  • Part “C” of your Pilates  session is “what the body needs”. Ron has a laterally tracking patella. Given what you review here about the knee and how the muscles of the hip and thigh work to create balance in a healthy knee, how would you describe to your client what is going on in his body?  Be specific.

    Design a first session for Ron. Include:

  • AT LEAST 3 different apparatus (Must use  Mat and Reformer, and one other apparatus)

  • Reasons for including or excluding certain apparatus/exercise

  • Which muscle(s) would you make a priority for stretch? For strength?