The Real Pilates Standards of Training are distinguished by our focus on 4 key elements. Your weekly assignments are designed to develop your skill in each of these areas as well as your Anatomy, History and more.
WEEK 14 ANATOMY ANSWER KEY
Anatomy Course Overview:
And we’re back again! This week we are on to joints! The information from last week should help you organize this week’s info--remembering the names of the bones as well as the terms from Week 1 will help you this week. Again, you’ll head to Vimeo (using the link below and the password “rpttanatomy”), make your notes, and then head to canvas to answer this week’s questions.
WATCH Joints video
Definition of a joint
- The union between two or more bones or cartilages
Definition of fibrous joints
Joints united by fibrous connective tissue
Example: Skull, teeth, in between radius and ulna and fibia and tibia
Definition of cartilaginous joints
- joints united by cartilage
Motions (also the motion for fibrous joints)
Example of cartilaginous joints
- Example of cartilaginous joints pubic symphisis, intervertebral disks
Synovial joint features:
- A space that where two or more structures articulate, allows for
Hyaline articular cartilage
- Caps on the bone ends
- Covers the joint and secrets a slippery, libricating fluid
Outer fibrous capsule
- dense connective tissue coverin the joint
Internal and external ligaments
- connective tissue that limit movement (thereby stabilizing the joint).
Classification of synovial joints (add examples if you’re feeling fancy):
You might need to do some outside research for some of the joint types:
two flat bone surfaces glide across one another. Ex.: facet joints in the spine
bones only move in one axis: flexion and extension. Examples: joints in the fingers and toes, elbow and knee (elbow and knee are considered “complex” hinge joints because they involve slight movement in other axes/planes).
Ball and socket
Allows motion in all 3 axes (other joint types are one or two axes). Ex: shoulder joint, hip joint.
An ovoid articular surface, or condyle that is received into an elliptical cavity. Allows motion in two planes, allowing flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and circumduction.
allows similar movement to the condyloid joint, but the articulating bones look like a saddle. Ex: the thumb.
Pivot joints allow for rotation, protraction, retraction, flexion, extension, adduction and abduction, which can be external (for example when rotating an arm outward), or internal (as in rotating an arm inward). Ex: radio-ulnar joints (proximal and distal) and atlanto-axial joint.
Axes of movement: Definition and examples
Flexion is a decrease in the angle of the bones meeting at a joint. IN GENERAL, this will mean the front or ANTERIOR surfaces of the body come closer together.
Extension is an increase in the angle of the bones meeting at a joint. IN GENERAL, this will mean that the back or POSTERIOR surfaces of the body come closer together.
The exception to this is the knee: bending your knee (bringing your heel closer to your bottom, thus bringing your calf and the back of your thigh together) is FLEXION at the knee joint, and straightening your knee (thus bringing your shin and front of thigh closer together) is EXTENSION.
adduction is the movement of a limb or limb segment TOWARDS the midline of the body
abduction is the movement of a limb or limb segment AWAY from the midline of the body
internal rotation is the turning of a limb TOWARDS the midline of the body around its longitudinal axis.
external rotation is the turning of a limb AWAY from the midline of the body around its longitudinal axis
POST TO THE BOARD IN CANVAS:
In the Single Leg Circles on the Mat, what joint actions occur at the hip joint?
The hip FLEXES to bring the leg up to point at the ceiling. The hip is in slight EXTERNAL ROTATION. The hip then ADDUCTS across the midline, EXTENDS towards the floor/the leg on the mat, ABDUCTS away from the midline and FLEXES AND ADDUCTS back to the start position. The circling action of the leg/hip is also sometimes referred to as CIRCUMDUCTION.
In Coordination on the Reformer, what joint actions occur in the lower limb?
Coordination begins with the legs bent into the chest, so you begin in FLEXION at both the hip and the knee. The hip and knee EXTEND the legs to straight, the hip ABDUCTS (open the legs) then ADDUCTS (close the legs), then both the knee and hip FLEX again, to bring the legs back into the chest.
What joint actions occur in the shoulder joint during Pull Straps I? Pull straps II?
In Pull Straps I, the shoulder joint begins in FLEXION, and the action of the exercise is EXTENSION, as the upper arm bone moves to be in line with the body. In Pull Straps II, the shoulder joint begins in ABDUCTION and the action is ADDUCTION as the arm moves in line with the sides of the body. If you are cuing the hands on top of the bottom, you could argue there is some EXTENSION happening at the shoulder joint as well.
HAVE A GREAT WEEK!