The Real Pilates Standards of Training are distinguished by our focus on 4 key elements. Your weekly assignments are designed to develop your skill in each of these areas as well as your Anatomy, History and more.



1.    Return to Life - Joseph Pilates

2.    Your Health - Joseph Pilates

3.    Home Exercise – The Ling System

4.    Pilates and the Powerhouse I  

5.    Pilates and the Powerhouse II

6.    Pilates Practice Companion - Alycea Ungaro

7.     Yoga Anatomy - Leslie Kaminoff


  1. McArdle WD, Katch FI and Katch VL (1996), Exercise Physiology: energy, nutrition and human performance, (4th edition), Williams & Wilkins, 769-781.

  2. Renstrom PAFH (ed) (1994), Clinical practice of sports injury prevention and care, Blackwell Scientific.

  3. American Sports Data Inc. Available at

  4. Bernardo LM (2007), The effectiveness of Pilates training in healthy adults: an appraisal of the research literature, J. Bodywork & Movement Therapies, 11(2):106-110.,%20Energy%20Medicine%20and%20Supplements%20(Bernardo%20and%20Wagner)/YJBMT528.pdf

  5. . Available at http://www.backpain.ord/pages/pr-pilates.php

  6. Phillips C, in Clinical Pilates: the art and science of Pilates as a rehab approach. Available at

  7. Sheddon M and Kravitz L (2008), Pilates, A Corrective System of Exercise, ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, 11(5).

  8. Pilates Method Alliance: PMA Position Statement on Pilates, March 2006. Available from

  9. Siff M, Pilates Revealed. Available from

  10. Olson M and Smith C, Pilates Exercise: Lessons from the Lab. Available at

  11. Juker D et al (1998), Quantitative intramuscular myoelectrical activity of lumbar portions of psoas and the abdominal wall during a wide variety of tasks, Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. , 30(2):301-310.

  12. Rogers K and Gibson AI (2006), Effects of an eight-week mat Pilates training program on body composition, flexibility and muscular endurance, Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc. , 38(5):S279-S280.

  13. Otto R et al (2004), The effect of twelve weeks of Pilates versus resistance training on trained females, 36(5):S356-S357.

  14. Aladro-Gonzalvo, A. R., Machado-Dìaz, M., Moncada-Jiménez, J., Hernández-Elizondo, J., & Araya-Vargas, G. (2012). The effect of Pilates exercises on body composition: A systematic review. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 16(1), 109-114

  15. Aladro-Gonzalvo, A. R., Araya-Vargas, G. A., Machado-Dìaz, M., & Salazar-Rojas, W. (2013). Pilates-based exercise for persistent, non-specific low back pain and associated functional disability: A meta-analysis with meta-regression. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 17(1), 125-136.

  16. Altan, L., Korkmaz, N., Bingol, Ü., & Gunay, B. (2009). Effect of pilates training on people with fibromyalgia syndrome: a pilot study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 90(12), 1983-1988.

  17. Alves de Araújo, M. E., Bezerra da Silva, E., Bragade Mello, D., Cader, S. A., Shiguemi Inoue Salgado, A., & Dantas, E. H. M. (2012). The effectiveness of the Pilates method: Reducing the degree of non-structural scoliosis, and improving flexibility and pain in female college students. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 16(2), 191-198.

  18. Carvalho Barbosa, A. W., Martins, F. L. M., Vitorino, D. F. D. M., & Almeida Barbosa, M. C. S. (2013). Immediate electromyographic changes of the biceps brachii and upper rectus abdominis muscles due to the Pilates centring technique. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 17(3), 385-390

  19. Betz, S.R. (2005). Modifying pilates for clients with osteoporosis. IDEA Fitness Journal 2(4), 46-55.

  20. Bird, M. L., Hill, K. D., & Fell, J. W. (2012). A randomized controlled study investigating static and dynamic balance in older adults after training with Pilates. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 93(1), 43-49.

  21. Bird, M. L., & Fell, J. (2013). Pilates exercise has positive long term effects on the aged-related decline in balance and strength in older, community dwelling men and women. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity.

  22. Blum, C. L. (2002). Chiropractic and pilates therapy for the treatment of adult scoliosis. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 25(4), E1-E8.

  23. Borges, J., Baptista, A. F., Santana, N., Souza, I., Kruschewsky, R. A., Galvão-Castro, B., & Sá, K. N. (2014). Pilates exercises improve low back pain and quality of life in patients with HTLV-1 virus: A randomized crossover clinical trial. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 18(1), 68-74.

  24. Cruz-Ferreira, A., Fernandes, J., Laranjo, L., Bernardo, L. M., & Silva, A. (2011). A systematic review of the effects of pilates method of exercise in healthy people. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92(12), 2071-2081.

  25. Cruz-Ferreira, A., Fernandes, J., Kuo, Y. L., Bernardo, L. M., Fernandes, O., Laranjo, L., & Silva, A. (2013). Does pilates-based exercise improve postural alignment in adult women? Women & Health, 53(6), 597-611.

  26. Culligan, P. J., Scherer, J., Dyer, K., Priestley, J. L., Guingon-White, G., Delvecchio, D., & Vangeli, M. (2010). A randomized clinical trial comparing pelvic floor muscle training to a Pilates exercise program for improving pelvic muscle strength. International Urogynecology Journal, 21(4), 401-408.

  27. Curnow, D., Cobbin, D., Wyndham, J., & Boris Choy, S. T. (2009). Altered motor control, posture and the Pilates method of exercise prescription. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 13(1), 104-111.

  28. da Fonseca, J. L., Magini, M., & de Freitas, T. H. (2009). Laboratory gait analysis in patients with low back pain before and after a pilates intervention. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 18(2), 269-282.

  29. da Luz, M. A., Costa, L. O. P., Fuhro, F. F., Manzoni, A. C. T., Oliveira, N. T. B., & Cabral, C. M. N. (2014). Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 14, 16.

  30. Donzelli, S., Di Domenica, E., Cova, A.M., Galletti, R., Giunta, N. (2006). Two different techniques in the rehabilitation treatment of low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (Europa Medicophysica), 42(3), 205-210.

  31. Dorado, C., Calbet, J. A., Lopez-Gordillo, A., Alayon, S., & Sanchis-Moysi, J. (2012). Marked effects of Pilates on the abdominal muscles: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 44(8), 1589-1594.

  32. Emery, K., De Serres, S. J., McMillan, A., & Côté, J. N. (2010). The effects of a Pilates training program on arm–trunk posture and movement. Clinical Biomechanics, 25(2), 124-130.

  33. Endleman, I., & Critchley, D. J. (2008). Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises: measurement with ultrasound scanning. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89(11), 2205-2212.

  34. English, T., & Howe, K. (2007). The effect of pilates exercise on trunk and postural stability and throwing velocity in college baseball pitchers: single subject design. North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy: NAJSPT, 2(1), 8.

  35. Freeman, J., Fox, E., Gear, M., & Hough, A. (2012). Pilates based core stability training in ambulant individuals with multiple sclerosis: protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial. BMC Neurology, 12(1), 19.

  36. Guclu-Gunduz, A., Citaker, S., Irkec, C., Nazliel, B., & Batur-Caglayan, H. Z. (2013). The effects of pilates on balance, mobility and strength in patients with multiple sclerosis. NeuroRehabilitation..

  37. Guimarães, G. V., Carvalho, V. O., Bocchi, E. A., & d’Avila, V. M. (2012). Pilates in heart failure patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Cardiovascular Therapeutics, 30(6), 351-356.

  38. Herrington, L. & Davies, R. (2005). The influence of pilates training on the ability to contract the transversus abdominis muscle in asymptomatic individuals. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies 9((1), 52-57.

  39. Hyun, J., Hwangbo, K., & Lee, C. W. (2014). The effects of Pilates mat exercise on the balance ability of elderly females. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(2), 291.

  40. Irez, G. B., Ozdemir, R. A., Evin, R., Irez, S. G., & Korkusuz, F. (2011). Integrating Pilates exercise into an exercise program for 65+ year-old women to reduce falls. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 10(1), 105.

  41. Jago, R., Jonker, M. L., Missaghian, M., & Baranowski, T. (2006). Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls. Preventive Medicine, 42(3), 177-180.

  42. Keays, K. S., Harris, S. R., Lucyshyn, J. M., & MacIntyre, D. L. (2008). Effects of Pilates exercises on shoulder range of motion, pain, mood, and upper-extremity function in women living with breast cancer: a pilot study. Physical Therapy, 88(4), 494-510.

  43. Kim, B. I., Jung, J. H., Shim, J., Kwon, H. Y., & Kim, H. (2014). An analysis of muscle activities of healthy women during Pilates exercises in a prone position. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26(1), 77.

  44. Kloubec, J. A. (2010). Pilates for improvement of muscle endurance, flexibility, balance, and posture. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(3), 661-667.

  45. Kuo, Y. L., Tully, E. A., & Galea, M. P. (2009). Sagittal spinal posture after Pilates-based exercise in healthy older adults. Spine, 34(10), 1046-1051.

  46. La Touche, R., Escalante, K., & Linares, M. T. (2008). Treating non-specific chronic low back pain through the Pilates method. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 12(4), 364-370.

  47. Levine, B., Kaplanek, B., & Jaffe, W. L. (2009). Pilates training for use in rehabilitation after total hip and knee arthroplasty: a preliminary report. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®, 467(6), 1468-1475.

  48. Lim, E. C., Poh, R. L., Low, A. Y., & Wong, W. P. (2011). Effects of Pilates-based exercises on pain and disability in individuals with persistent nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy 41(2), 70.

  49. Mallin, G., & Murphy, S. (2013). The effectiveness of a 6-week Pilates programme on outcome measures in a population of chronic neck pain patients: A pilot study. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 17(3), 376-384.

  50. Marandi, S. M., Nejad, V. S., Shanazari, Z., & Zolaktaf, V. (2013). A comparison of 12 Weeks of Pilates and aquatic training on the dynamic balance of women with multiple sclerosis. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4(Suppl 1), S110.

  51. Marques, N. R., Morcelli, M. H., Hallal, C. Z., & Gonçalves, M. (2013). EMG activity of trunk stabilizer muscles during centering principle of Pilates method. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 17(2), 185-191.

  52. Marshall, P. W., Kennedy, S., Brooks, C., & Lonsdale, C. (2013). Pilates exercise or stationary cycling for chronic nonspecific low back pain: Does it matter? A randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up. Spine, 38(15), E952-E959.

  53. Menacho, M. D. O., Silva, M. F., Obara, K., Mostagi, F. Q. R. C., Dias, J. M., Lima, T. B., ... & Cardoso, J. R. (2013). The electromyographic activity of the multifidus muscles during the execution of two Pilates exercises—Swan Dive and Breast Stroke—for healthy people. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 36(5), 319-326.                                                               Not the article:

  54. Menacho, M. O., Obara, K., Conceição, J. S., Chitolina, M. L., Krantz, D. R., da Silva, R. A., & Cardoso, J. R. (2010). Electromyographic effect of mat Pilates exercise on the back muscle activity of healthy adult females. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 33(9), 672-678.

  55. Miyamoto, G. C., Costa, L. O., Galvanin, T., & Cabral, C.M. (2013). Efficacy of the addition of modified Pilates exercises to a minimal intervention in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy, 93(3), 310-320.

  56. Miyamoto, G. C., Costa, L. O., Galvanin, T., & Cabral, C. (2011). The efficacy of the addition of the Pilates method over a minimal intervention in the treatment of chronic nonspecific low back pain: a study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 10(4), 248-254.

  57. Miyamoto, G.C., Costa, L.O., Cabral, C.M. (2013). Efficacy of the Pilates method for pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 17(6), 517-532.

  58. Newell, D., Shead, V., & Sloane, L. (2012). Changes in gait and balance parameters in elderly subjects attending an 8-week supervised Pilates programme. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 16(4), 549-554.

  59. Notarnicola, A., Fischetti, F., Maccagnano, G., Comes, R., Tafuri, S., & Moretti, B. (2013). Daily pilates exercise or inactivity for patients with low back pain: a clinical prospective observational study. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

  60. Ozer Kaya, D., Duzgun, I., Baltaci, G., Karacan, S., & Colakoglu, F. (2012). Effects of calisthenics and Pilates exercises on coordination and proprioception in adult women: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 21(3).

  61. Pereira, L. M., Obara, K., Dias, J. M., Menacho, M. O., Guariglia, D. A., Schiavoni, D., & Cardoso, J. R. (2012). Comparing the Pilates method with no exercise or lumbar stabilization for pain and functionality in patients with chronic low back pain: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Rehabilitation, 26(1), 10-20.

  62. Phrompaet, S., Paungmali, A., Pirunsan, U., & Sitilertpisan, P. (2011). Effects of Pilates training on lumbo-pelvic stability and flexibility. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 2(1).

  63. Posadzki, P., Lizis, P., & Hagner-Derengowska, M. (2011). Pilates for low back pain: a systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 17(2), 85-89.

  64. Queiroz, B. C., Cagliari, M. F., Amorim, C. F., & Sacco, I. C. (2010). Muscle activation during four Pilates core stability exercises in quadruped position. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91(1), 86-92

  65. Rogers, K., & Gibson, A. L. (2009). Eight-week traditional mat Pilates training-program effects on adult fitness characteristics. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80(3), 569-574.

  66. Rossi, D. M., Morcelli, M. H., Marques, N. R., Hallal, C. Z., Gonçalves, M., LaRoche, D. P., & Navega, M. T. (2014). Antagonist coactivation of trunk stabilizer muscles during Pilates exercises. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 18(1), 34-41.

  67. Ruiz-Montero, P. J., Castillo-Rodriguez, A., Mikalački, M., Nebojsa, Č., & Korovljev, D. (2014). A 24-weeks Pilates-aerobic and educative training to improve body fat mass in elderly Serbian women. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 9, 243-248.

  68. Rydeard, R., Leger, A., & Smith, D. (2006). Pilates-based therapeutic exercise: effect on subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain and functional disability: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 36(7), 472-484.

  69. Segal, N. A., Hein, J., & Basford, J. R. (2004). The effects of Pilates training on flexibility and body composition: an observational study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(12), 1977-1981.

  70. Silva, Y. O., Melo, M. O., Gomes, L. E., Bonezi, A., & Loss, J. F. (2009). Analysis of the external resistance and electromyographic activity of hip extension performed according to the Pilates method. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 13(1), 82-88.

  71. Sorosky, S., Stilp, S., & Akuthota, V. (2008). Yoga and pilates in the management of low back pain. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine, 1(1), 39-47.

  72. Stan, D. L., Rausch, S. M., Sundt, K., Cheville, A. L., Youdas, J. W., Krause, D. A., ... & Pruthi, S. (2012). Pilates for breast cancer survivors. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 16(2), 131-141.

  73. Stivala, A., & Hartley, G. (2013). The effects of a pilates-based exercise rehabilitation program on functional outcome and fall risk reduction in an aging adult status-post traumatic hip fracture due to fall. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy.

  74. Stolze, L. R., Allison, S. C., & Childs, J. D. (2012). Derivation of a preliminary clinical prediction rule for identifying a subgroup of patients with low back pain likely to benefit from pilates-based exercise. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 42(5), 425-436.

  75. van der Linden, M. L., Bulley, C., Geneen, L. J., Hooper, J. E., Cowan, P., & Mercer, T. H. (2013). Pilates for people with multiple sclerosis who use a wheelchair: feasibility, efficacy and participant experiences. Disability & Rehabilitation

  76. Wajswelner, H., Metcalf, B., & Bennell, K. (2012). Clinical pilates versus general exercise for chronic low back pain: randomized trial. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 44(7), 1197-1205.

  77. Wells, C., Kolt, G. S., Marshall, P., Hill, B., & Bialocerkowski, A. (2013). Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 13(1), 7.